Streams are the abstraction that allows clients to push time-series data through Continuous Views. A stream row, or simply event, looks exactly like a regular table row, and the interface for writing data to streams is identical to the one for writing to tables. However, the semantics of streams are fundamentally different from tables.

Namely, events only “exist” within a stream until they are consumed by all of the Continuous Views that are reading from that stream. Even then, it is still not possible for users to SELECT from streams. Streams serve exclusively as inputs to Continuous Views.

Streams are represented in PipelineDB as foreign tables managed by the pipelinedb foreign server. The syntax for creating a foreign table is similar to that of creating a regular PostgreSQL table:

CREATE FOREIGN TABLE stream_name ( [
   { column_name data_type [ COLLATE collation ] } [, ... ]
] )
SERVER pipelinedb;


The name of the stream to be created.


The name of a column to be created in the new table.


The data type of the column. This can include array specifiers. For more information on the data types supported by PipelineDB, see Built-in Functionality and the PostgreSQL supported types .

COLLATE collation

The COLLATE clause assigns a collation to the column (which must be of a collatable data type). If not specified, the column data type’s default collation is used.

Columns can be added to streams using ALTER STREAM:

postgres=# ALTER FOREIGN TABLE stream ADD COLUMN x integer;


Columns cannot be dropped from streams.

Streams can be dropped with the DROP FOREIGN TABLE command. Below is an example of creating a simple continuous view that reads from a stream.

postgres=# CREATE FOREIGN TABLE stream (x integer, y integer) SERVER pipelinedb;
postgres=# CREATE VIEW v AS SELECT sum(x + y) FROM stream;

Writing To Streams


Stream writes are just regular PostgreSQL INSERT statements. Here’s the syntax:

INSERT INTO stream_name ( column_name [, ...] )
  { VALUES ( expression [, ...] ) [, ...] | query }

Where query is a SELECT query.

Let’s look at a few examples…

Stream writes can be a single event at a time:

INSERT INTO stream (x, y, z) VALUES (0, 1, 2);
INSERT INTO json_stream (payload) VALUES (
  '{"key": "value", "arr": [92, 12, 100, 200], "obj": { "nested": "value" } }'

Or they can be batched for better performance:

INSERT INTO stream (x, y, z) VALUES (0, 1, 2), (3, 4, 5), (6, 7, 8)
(9, 10, 11), (12, 13, 14), (15, 16, 17), (18, 19, 20), (21, 22, 23), (24, 25, 26);

Stream inserts can also contain arbitrary expressions:

INSERT INTO geo_stream (id, coords) VALUES (42, a_function(-72.09, 41.40));

INSERT INTO udf_stream (result) VALUES (my_user_defined_function('foo'));

INSERT INTO str_stream (encoded, location) VALUES
  (encode('encode me', 'base64'), position('needle' in 'haystack'));

INSERT INTO rad_stream (circle, sphere) VALUES
  (pi() * pow(11.2, 2), 4 / 3 * pi() * pow(11.2, 3));

-- Subselects into streams are also supported
INSERT INTO ss_stream (x) SELECT generate_series(1, 10) AS x;

INSERT INTO tab_stream (x) SELECT x FROM some_table;

Prepared INSERT

Stream inserts also work with prepared inserts in order to reduce network overhead:

PREPARE write_to_stream AS INSERT INTO stream (x, y, z) VALUES ($1, $2, $3);
EXECUTE write_to_stream(0, 1, 2);
EXECUTE write_to_stream(3, 4, 5);
EXECUTE write_to_stream(6, 7, 8);


Finally, it is also possible to use COPY to write data from a file into a stream:

COPY stream (data) FROM '/some/file.csv'

COPY can be very useful for retroactively populating a continuous view from archival data. Here is how one might stream compressed archival data from S3 into PipelineDB:

aws s3 cp s3://bucket/logfile.gz - | gunzip | pipeline -c "COPY stream (data) FROM STDIN"

Other Clients

Since PipelineDB is an extension of PostgreSQL, writing to streams is possible from any client that works with PostgreSQL (and probably most clients that work with any SQL database for that matter), so it’s not necessary to manually construct stream inserts. To get an idea of what that looks like, you should check out the Clients section.

Output Streams

Output streams make it possible to read from the stream of incremental changes made to any continuous view, or rows selected by a continuous transform. Output streams are regular PipelineDB streams and as such can be read by other continuous views or transforms. They’re accessed via the the output_of function invoked on a continuous view or transform.

For continuous views, each row in an output stream always contains an old and new tuple representing a change made to the underlying continuous view. If the change corresponds to a continuous view insert, the old tuple will be NULL. If the change corresponds to a delete (currently this is only possible when a sliding-window tuple goes out of window), the new tuple is NULL.

Let’s look at a simple example to illustrate some of these concepts in action. Consider a trivial continuous view that simply sums a single column of a stream:

CREATE VIEW v_sum AS SELECT sum(x) FROM stream;

Now imagine a scenario in which we’d like to make a record of each time the sum changes by more than 10. We can create another continuous view that reads from v_sum’s output stream to easily accomplish this:

CREATE VIEW v_deltas AS SELECT abs((new).sum - (old).sum) AS delta
  FROM output_of('v_sum')
  WHERE abs((new).sum - (old).sum) > 10;


old and new tuples must be wrapped in parentheses

Check out Continuous Transform Output Streams for more information about output streams on continuous transforms.

Output Streams on Sliding Windows

For non-sliding-window continuous views, output streams are simply written to whenever a write to a stream yields a change to the continuous view’s result. However, since sliding-window continuous views’ results are also dependent on time, their output streams are automatically written to as their results change with time. That is, sliding-window continuous views’ output streams will receive writes even if their input streams are not being written to.

Delta Streams

In addition to old and new tuples written to a continuous view’s output stream, a delta tuple is also emitted for each incremental change made to the continuous view. The delta tuple contains the value representing the “difference” between the old and new tuples. For trivial aggregates such as sum, the delta between an old and new value is simply the scalar value (new).sum - (old).sum, much like we did manually in the above example.

Let’s see what this actually looks like:

postgres=# CREATE VIEW v AS SELECT COUNT(*) FROM stream;
postgres=# CREATE VIEW v_real_deltas AS SELECT (delta).sum FROM output_of('v');
postgres=# INSERT INTO stream (x) VALUES (1);
postgres=# SELECT * FROM v_real_deltas;
(1 row)
postgres=# INSERT INTO stream (x) VALUES (2);
postgres=# INSERT INTO stream (x) VALUES (3);
postgres=# SELECT * FROM v_real_deltas;
(3 rows)

As you can see, v_real_deltas records the incremental changes resulting from each insertion. But sum is relatively boring. The real magic of delta streams is that they work for all aggregates, and can even be used in conjunction with Combine to efficiently aggregate continuous views’ output at different granularities/groupings.

Let’s look at a more interesting example. Suppose we have a continuous view counting the number of distinct users per minute:

CREATE VIEW uniques_1m AS
  SELECT minute(arrival_timestamp) AS ts, COUNT(DISTINCT user_id) AS uniques

For archival and performance purposes we may want to down aggregate this continuous view to an hourly granularity after a certain period of time. With an aggregate such as COUNT(DISTINCT), we obviously can’t simply sum the counts over all the minutes in an hour, because there would be duplicated uniques across the original minute boundaries. Instead, we can Combine the distinct delta values produced by the output of the minute-level continuous view:

CREATE VIEW uniques_hourly AS
  SELECT hour((new).ts) AS ts, combine((delta).uniques) AS uniques
FROM output_of('uniques_1m') GROUP BY ts;

The uniques_hourly continuous view will now contain hourly uniques rows that contain the exact same information as if all of the original raw values were aggregated at the hourly level. But instead of duplicating the work performed by reading the raw events, we only had to further aggregate the output of the minute-level aggregation.


Sometimes you might want to update only a select set of continuous queries (views and transforms) when writing to a stream, for instance, when replaying historical data into a newly created continuous view. You can use the pipelinedb.stream_targets configuration parameter to specify the continuous queries that should read events written to streams from the current session. Set pipelinedb.stream_targets to a comma-separated list of continuous queries you want to consume the events:

postgres=# CREATE VIEW v0 AS SELECT COUNT(*) FROM stream;
postgres=# CREATE VIEW v1 AS SELECT COUNT(*) FROM stream;
postgres=# INSERT INTO stream (x) VALUES (1);
postgres=# SET stream_targets TO v0;
postgres=# INSERT INTO stream (x) VALUES (1);
postgres=# SET stream_targets TO DEFAULT;
postgres=# INSERT INTO stream (x) VALUES (1);
postgres=# SELECT count FROM v0;
(1 row)

postgres=# SELECT count FROM v1;
(1 row)


Arrival Ordering

By design, PipelineDB uses arrival ordering for event ordering. What this means is that events are timestamped when they arrive at the PipelineDB server, and are given an additional attribute called arrival_timestamp containing that timestamp. The arrival_timestamp can then be used in Continuous Views with a temporal component, such as Sliding Windows .

Event Expiration

After each event arrives at the PipelineDB server, it is given a small bitmap representing all of the Continuous Views that still need to read the event. When a continuous view is done reading an event, it flips a single bit in the bitmap. When all of the bits in the bitmap are set to 1, the event is discarded and can never be accessed again.

Now that you know what Continuous Views are and how to write to streams, it’s time to learn about PipelineDB’s expansive Built-in Functionality!