Python Module Index

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__future__ Future statement definitions
__main__ The environment where the top-level script is run.
_dummy_thread Drop-in replacement for the _thread module.
_thread Low-level threading API.
abc Abstract base classes according to PEP 3119.
aifc Read and write audio files in AIFF or AIFC format.
argparse Command-line option and argument parsing library.
array Space efficient arrays of uniformly typed numeric values.
ast Abstract Syntax Tree classes and manipulation.
asynchat Support for asynchronous command/response protocols.
asyncio Asynchronous I/O, event loop, coroutines and tasks.
asyncore A base class for developing asynchronous socket handling services.
atexit Register and execute cleanup functions.
audioop Manipulate raw audio data.
base64 RFC 3548: Base16, Base32, Base64 Data Encodings; Base85 and Ascii85
bdb Debugger framework.
binascii Tools for converting between binary and various ASCII-encoded binary representations.
binhex Encode and decode files in binhex4 format.
bisect Array bisection algorithms for binary searching.
builtins The module that provides the built-in namespace.
bz2 Interfaces for bzip2 compression and decompression.
calendar Functions for working with calendars, including some emulation of the Unix cal program.
cgi Helpers for running Python scripts via the Common Gateway Interface.
cgitb Configurable traceback handler for CGI scripts.
chunk Module to read IFF chunks.
cmath Mathematical functions for complex numbers.
cmd Build line-oriented command interpreters.
code Facilities to implement read-eval-print loops.
codecs Encode and decode data and streams.
codeop Compile (possibly incomplete) Python code.
collections Container datatypes Abstract base classes for containers
colorsys Conversion functions between RGB and other color systems.
compileall Tools for byte-compiling all Python source files in a directory tree.
    concurrent.futures Execute computations concurrently using threads or processes.
configparser Configuration file parser.
contextlib Utilities for with-statement contexts.
copy Shallow and deep copy operations.
copyreg Register pickle support functions.
crypt (Unix) The crypt() function used to check Unix passwords.
csv Write and read tabular data to and from delimited files.
ctypes A foreign function library for Python.
curses (Unix) An interface to the curses library, providing portable terminal handling.
    curses.ascii Constants and set-membership functions for ASCII characters.
    curses.panel A panel stack extension that adds depth to curses windows.
    curses.textpad Emacs-like input editing in a curses window.
datetime Basic date and time types.
dbm Interfaces to various Unix "database" formats.
    dbm.dumb Portable implementation of the simple DBM interface.
    dbm.gnu (Unix) GNU's reinterpretation of dbm.
    dbm.ndbm (Unix) The standard "database" interface, based on ndbm.
decimal Implementation of the General Decimal Arithmetic Specification.
difflib Helpers for computing differences between objects.
dis Disassembler for Python bytecode.
distutils Support for building and installing Python modules into an existing Python installation.
    distutils.archive_util Utility functions for creating archive files (tarballs, zip files, ...)
    distutils.ccompiler Abstract CCompiler class
    distutils.cmd This module provides the abstract base class Command. This class is subclassed by the modules in the distutils.command subpackage.
    distutils.command This subpackage contains one module for each standard Distutils command.
    distutils.command.bdist Build a binary installer for a package
    distutils.command.bdist_dumb Build a "dumb" installer - a simple archive of files
    distutils.command.bdist_msi Build a binary distribution as a Windows MSI file
    distutils.command.bdist_packager Abstract base class for packagers
    distutils.command.bdist_rpm Build a binary distribution as a Redhat RPM and SRPM
    distutils.command.bdist_wininst Build a Windows installer Build all files of a package
    distutils.command.build_clib Build any C libraries in a package
    distutils.command.build_ext Build any extensions in a package
    distutils.command.build_py Build the .py/.pyc files of a package
    distutils.command.build_scripts Build the scripts of a package
    distutils.command.check Check the metadata of a package
    distutils.command.clean Clean a package build area
    distutils.command.config Perform package configuration
    distutils.command.install Install a package
    distutils.command.install_data Install data files from a package
    distutils.command.install_headers Install C/C++ header files from a package
    distutils.command.install_lib Install library files from a package
    distutils.command.install_scripts Install script files from a package
    distutils.command.register Register a module with the Python Package Index
    distutils.command.sdist Build a source distribution
    distutils.core The core Distutils functionality
    distutils.debug Provides the debug flag for distutils
    distutils.dep_util Utility functions for simple dependency checking
    distutils.dir_util Utility functions for operating on directories and directory trees
    distutils.dist Provides the Distribution class, which represents the module distribution being built/installed/distributed
    distutils.errors Provides standard distutils exceptions
    distutils.extension Provides the Extension class, used to describe C/C++ extension modules in setup scripts
    distutils.fancy_getopt Additional getopt functionality
    distutils.file_util Utility functions for operating on single files
    distutils.filelist The FileList class, used for poking about the file system and building lists of files.
    distutils.log A simple logging mechanism, 282-style
    distutils.msvccompiler Microsoft Compiler
    distutils.spawn Provides the spawn() function
    distutils.sysconfig Low-level access to configuration information of the Python interpreter.
    distutils.text_file provides the TextFile class, a simple interface to text files
    distutils.unixccompiler UNIX C Compiler
    distutils.util Miscellaneous other utility functions
    distutils.version implements classes that represent module version numbers.
doctest Test pieces of code within docstrings.
dummy_threading Drop-in replacement for the threading module.
email Package supporting the parsing, manipulating, and generating email messages.
    email.charset Character Sets
    email.contentmanager Storing and Retrieving Content from MIME Parts
    email.encoders Encoders for email message payloads.
    email.errors The exception classes used by the email package.
    email.generator Generate flat text email messages from a message structure.
    email.header Representing non-ASCII headers
    email.headerregistry Automatic Parsing of headers based on the field name
    email.iterators Iterate over a message object tree.
    email.message The base class representing email messages.
    email.mime Build MIME messages.
    email.parser Parse flat text email messages to produce a message object structure.
    email.policy Controlling the parsing and generating of messages
    email.utils Miscellaneous email package utilities.
    encodings.idna Internationalized Domain Names implementation
    encodings.mbcs Windows ANSI codepage
    encodings.utf_8_sig UTF-8 codec with BOM signature
ensurepip Bootstrapping the "pip" installer into an existing Python installation or virtual environment.
enum Implementation of an enumeration class.
errno Standard errno system symbols.
faulthandler Dump the Python traceback.
fcntl (Unix) The fcntl() and ioctl() system calls.
filecmp Compare files efficiently.
fileinput Loop over standard input or a list of files.
fnmatch Unix shell style filename pattern matching.
formatterDeprecated: Generic output formatter and device interface.
fpectl (Unix) Provide control for floating point exception handling.
fractions Rational numbers.
ftplib FTP protocol client (requires sockets).
functools Higher-order functions and operations on callable objects.
gc Interface to the cycle-detecting garbage collector.
getopt Portable parser for command line options; support both short and long option names.
getpass Portable reading of passwords and retrieval of the userid.
gettext Multilingual internationalization services.
glob Unix shell style pathname pattern expansion.
grp (Unix) The group database (getgrnam() and friends).
gzip Interfaces for gzip compression and decompression using file objects.
hashlib Secure hash and message digest algorithms.
heapq Heap queue algorithm (a.k.a. priority queue).
hmac Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication (HMAC) implementation
html Helpers for manipulating HTML.
    html.entities Definitions of HTML general entities.
    html.parser A simple parser that can handle HTML and XHTML.
http HTTP status codes and messages
    http.client HTTP and HTTPS protocol client (requires sockets).
    http.cookiejar Classes for automatic handling of HTTP cookies.
    http.cookies Support for HTTP state management (cookies).
    http.server HTTP server and request handlers.
imaplib IMAP4 protocol client (requires sockets).
imghdr Determine the type of image contained in a file or byte stream.
impDeprecated: Access the implementation of the import statement.
importlib The implementation of the import machinery. Abstract base classes related to import
    importlib.machinery Importers and path hooks
    importlib.util Utility code for importers
inspect Extract information and source code from live objects.
io Core tools for working with streams.
ipaddress IPv4/IPv6 manipulation library.
itertools Functions creating iterators for efficient looping.
json Encode and decode the JSON format.
    json.tool A command line to validate and pretty-print JSON.
keyword Test whether a string is a keyword in Python.
lib2to3 the 2to3 library
linecache This module provides random access to individual lines from text files.
locale Internationalization services.
logging Flexible event logging system for applications.
    logging.config Configuration of the logging module.
    logging.handlers Handlers for the logging module.
lzma A Python wrapper for the liblzma compression library.
macpath Mac OS 9 path manipulation functions.
mailbox Manipulate mailboxes in various formats
mailcap Mailcap file handling.
marshal Convert Python objects to streams of bytes and back (with different constraints).
math Mathematical functions (sin() etc.).
mimetypes Mapping of filename extensions to MIME types.
mmap Interface to memory-mapped files for Unix and Windows.
modulefinder Find modules used by a script.
msilib (Windows) Creation of Microsoft Installer files, and CAB files.
msvcrt (Windows) Miscellaneous useful routines from the MS VC++ runtime.
multiprocessing Process-based parallelism.
    multiprocessing.connection API for dealing with sockets.
    multiprocessing.dummy Dumb wrapper around threading.
    multiprocessing.managers Share data between process with shared objects.
    multiprocessing.pool Create pools of processes.
    multiprocessing.sharedctypes Allocate ctypes objects from shared memory.
netrc Loading of .netrc files.
nis (Unix) Interface to Sun's NIS (Yellow Pages) library.
nntplib NNTP protocol client (requires sockets).
numbers Numeric abstract base classes (Complex, Real, Integral, etc.).
operator Functions corresponding to the standard operators.
optparseDeprecated: Command-line option parsing library.
os Miscellaneous operating system interfaces.
    os.path Operations on pathnames.
ossaudiodev (Linux, FreeBSD) Access to OSS-compatible audio devices.
parser Access parse trees for Python source code.
pathlib Object-oriented filesystem paths
pdb The Python debugger for interactive interpreters.
pickle Convert Python objects to streams of bytes and back.
pickletools Contains extensive comments about the pickle protocols and pickle-machine opcodes, as well as some useful functions.
pipes (Unix) A Python interface to Unix shell pipelines.
pkgutil Utilities for the import system.
platform Retrieves as much platform identifying data as possible.
plistlib Generate and parse Mac OS X plist files.
poplib POP3 protocol client (requires sockets).
posix (Unix) The most common POSIX system calls (normally used via module os).
pprint Data pretty printer.
profile Python source profiler.
pstats Statistics object for use with the profiler.
pty (Linux) Pseudo-Terminal Handling for Linux.
pwd (Unix) The password database (getpwnam() and friends).
py_compile Generate byte-code files from Python source files.
pyclbr Supports information extraction for a Python class browser.
pydoc Documentation generator and online help system.
queue A synchronized queue class.
quopri Encode and decode files using the MIME quoted-printable encoding.
random Generate pseudo-random numbers with various common distributions.
re Regular expression operations.
readline (Unix) GNU readline support for Python.
reprlib Alternate repr() implementation with size limits.
resource (Unix) An interface to provide resource usage information on the current process.
rlcompleter Python identifier completion, suitable for the GNU readline library.
runpy Locate and run Python modules without importing them first.
sched General purpose event scheduler.
secrets Generate secure random numbers for managing secrets.
select Wait for I/O completion on multiple streams.
selectors High-level I/O multiplexing.
shelve Python object persistence.
shlex Simple lexical analysis for Unix shell-like languages.
shutil High-level file operations, including copying.
signal Set handlers for asynchronous events.
site Module responsible for site-specific configuration.
smtpd A SMTP server implementation in Python.
smtplib SMTP protocol client (requires sockets).
sndhdr Determine type of a sound file.
socket Low-level networking interface.
socketserver A framework for network servers.
spwd (Unix) The shadow password database (getspnam() and friends).
sqlite3 A DB-API 2.0 implementation using SQLite 3.x.
ssl TLS/SSL wrapper for socket objects
stat Utilities for interpreting the results of os.stat(), os.lstat() and os.fstat().
statistics mathematical statistics functions
string Common string operations.
stringprep String preparation, as per RFC 3453
struct Interpret bytes as packed binary data.
subprocess Subprocess management.
sunau Provide an interface to the Sun AU sound format.
symbol Constants representing internal nodes of the parse tree.
symtable Interface to the compiler's internal symbol tables.
sys Access system-specific parameters and functions.
sysconfig Python's configuration information
syslog (Unix) An interface to the Unix syslog library routines.
tabnanny Tool for detecting white space related problems in Python source files in a directory tree.
tarfile Read and write tar-format archive files.
telnetlib Telnet client class.
tempfile Generate temporary files and directories.
termios (Unix) POSIX style tty control.
test Regression tests package containing the testing suite for Python. Support for Python's regression test suite.
textwrap Text wrapping and filling
threading Thread-based parallelism.
time Time access and conversions.
timeit Measure the execution time of small code snippets.
tkinter Interface to Tcl/Tk for graphical user interfaces
    tkinter.scrolledtext (Tk) Text widget with a vertical scroll bar.
    tkinter.tix Tk Extension Widgets for Tkinter
    tkinter.ttk Tk themed widget set
token Constants representing terminal nodes of the parse tree.
tokenize Lexical scanner for Python source code.
trace Trace or track Python statement execution.
traceback Print or retrieve a stack traceback.
tracemalloc Trace memory allocations.
tty (Unix) Utility functions that perform common terminal control operations.
turtle An educational framework for simple graphics applications
turtledemo A viewer for example turtle scripts
types Names for built-in types.
typing Support for type hints (see PEP 484).
unicodedata Access the Unicode Database.
unittest Unit testing framework for Python.
    unittest.mock Mock object library.
    urllib.error Exception classes raised by urllib.request.
    urllib.parse Parse URLs into or assemble them from components.
    urllib.request Extensible library for opening URLs.
    urllib.response Response classes used by urllib.
    urllib.robotparser Load a robots.txt file and answer questions about fetchability of other URLs.
uu Encode and decode files in uuencode format.
uuid UUID objects (universally unique identifiers) according to RFC 4122
venv Creation of virtual environments.
warnings Issue warning messages and control their disposition.
wave Provide an interface to the WAV sound format.
weakref Support for weak references and weak dictionaries.
webbrowser Easy-to-use controller for Web browsers.
winreg (Windows) Routines and objects for manipulating the Windows registry.
winsound (Windows) Access to the sound-playing machinery for Windows.
wsgiref WSGI Utilities and Reference Implementation.
    wsgiref.handlers WSGI server/gateway base classes.
    wsgiref.headers WSGI response header tools.
    wsgiref.simple_server A simple WSGI HTTP server.
    wsgiref.util WSGI environment utilities.
    wsgiref.validate WSGI conformance checker.
xdrlib Encoders and decoders for the External Data Representation (XDR).
xml Package containing XML processing modules
    xml.dom Document Object Model API for Python.
    xml.dom.minidom Minimal Document Object Model (DOM) implementation.
    xml.dom.pulldom Support for building partial DOM trees from SAX events.
    xml.etree.ElementTree Implementation of the ElementTree API.
    xml.parsers.expat An interface to the Expat non-validating XML parser.
    xml.sax Package containing SAX2 base classes and convenience functions.
    xml.sax.handler Base classes for SAX event handlers.
    xml.sax.saxutils Convenience functions and classes for use with SAX.
    xml.sax.xmlreader Interface which SAX-compliant XML parsers must implement.
    xmlrpc.client XML-RPC client access.
    xmlrpc.server Basic XML-RPC server implementations.
zipapp Manage executable python zip archives
zipfile Read and write ZIP-format archive files.
zipimport support for importing Python modules from ZIP archives.
zlib Low-level interface to compression and decompression routines compatible with gzip.